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Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Our understanding of etiological factors, the progress of the disease, and the effectiveness of prophylactic procedures have led us to believe that we understand the disease.
However, we still have too few answers to many questions: In this article, our aim is to focus on the effects of saliva and salivary constituents on cariogenic bacteria and the subsequent development of dental caries.
The lubricating and antimicrobial functions of saliva are maintained mainly by resting saliva. Stimulation of saliva results in a flushing effect and the clearance of oral debris and noxious agents.
However, the protective functions of saliva are not limited to the above-mentioned functions. Recent studies have revealed a large number of functions, mediated by both the inorganic and organic components of saliva, that should be considered in assessments of the effects of human saliva on dental caries.
Some of these studies have introduced a new approach to dental caries from being a bacterially induced multifactorial disease to a disease which may also be influenced by inherited salivary factors. Such genetically regulated salivary components may influence both the colonization and the clearance of micro-organisms from the oral cavity.
The relationship between the establishment of mutans streptococci and the initiation of dental caries in young children has been extensively studied. Several studies have shown that children who experience colonization by mutans streptococci early in life are at greater risk of developing dental caries than those who are colonized later Alaluusua and Renkonen, ; Caufield et al.
Once mutans streptococci become established, they are considered difficult to eliminate, and the caries process is made possible. The current concepts of dental caries focus on the fermentation of carbohydrates by cariogenic-bacteriaproducing organic acids.
Plaque bacteria produce a variety of end-products that may differ depending on the diet. When fermentable carbohydrates are present, the main organic acids produced are lactic, formic, and acetic acids Geddes, These acids coincide with a pH drop in plaque, resulting in demineralization of the tooth Loesche, ; Nyvad and Fejerskov, and creating an environment which is advantageous for further growth of Streptococcus mutans Bradshaw et al.
In addition to acid production, mutans streptococci express a wide range of virulence factors that are responsible for the cariogenicity of the dental plaque.
However, saliva provides the main host defense systems against these virulence factors, and the balance between de- and remineralization is continuously affected by the interaction of bacterial virulence factors and host defense. In general, the higher the flow rate, the faster the clearance Miura et al.
Reduced salivary flow rate and the concomitant reduction of oral defense systems may cause severe caries and mucosal inflammations Daniels et al. Dental caries is probably the most common consequence of hyposalivation Brown et al, ; Scully, Caries lesions develop rapidly and also on tooth surfaces that are Key Words Saliva, dental caries, buffer effect, adhesion, aggregation, antimicrobial agents.
Caries-Who, When, and Where? The notion that dental caries in animals is an infectious, transmissible disease was first demonstrated by Keyes Since then, a group of phenotypically similar bacteria, collectively known as mutans streptococci, has been implicated as the principal bacterial component responsible for the initiation and the development of dental caries Loesche, The tooth surface is unique among all body surfaces in two ways.
First, it is a non-shedding hard surface, and, second, this surface is introduced into the human mouth during the first years of life. The earliest point at which the cariogenic mutans streptococci may become established is when the first teeth erupt.
Solid surfaces are required for both streptococcal colonization and multiplication Loesche, Subjects with impaired saliva Oral cavity flow rate often show high caries incidence Papas et al. The buffer capacity of both unstimulated and stimulated saliva involves three major buffer systems: These systems have different pH ranges of maximal buffer capacity Bardow et al,the Laine et al, ; Laine and Pienihakkinen, The bicarbonate and phosphate systems having pK values of 6.
The phosphate and protein buffer systems make a minor buffer effect increases Johansson et al, The explanation contribution to the total salivary buffer capacity, relative to the for this phenomenon is still unclear, but a significant bicarbonate system. The phosphate system is, in principle, correlation between the degree of malnutrition and the severity of caries has been reported Johansson et al, Also, water leaking, or dripping is a common problem found in many faucets when they are used for a longer duration.
The valve type used in these faucets plays a major role in the anti-dripping property. Note: The terms in which a course is normally taught is at the end of each description (F=Fall, Sp=Spring, Su=Summer). Jump to TN eCampus Courses. The purpose of this study was to determine dental practitioners’ opinions, techniques, and materials used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) in Saudi Arabia.
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Dental caries is the most common oral disease worldwide. Caries is primarily caused by bacteria that colonize the mouth and breaks down sugars to produce an acid that de-mineralizes the surface of. Role of Saliva in Caries Essay Sample.
Department of Cariology and Turku Immunology Centre, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkaisenkatu 2, FIN – Turku, Finland, Corresponding author, [email protected] Adv Dent Res , December, Abstract – Caries is a unique multifactorial infectious disease.